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Advanced materials and nanotechnology

Technological progress is almost palpable now, as we are not only using traditional materials more efficiently, but are also creating new ones, with preset parameters. This allows a dramatic improvement of product quality, mainly in the aerospace industry, mechanical engineering, and construction.
Material science has been revolutionized by composite materials, or compound heterogeneous materials consisting of a reinforcing component and a matrix and offering improved strength, weight and plasticity. Composites will pose a serious threat to traditional material branches, such as ferrous metallurgy.
In addition to plastic and metal-based composites, which we have grown accustomed to, glass-based composites are also gaining popularity. In the future, composite structures can be embedded with “smart components” (microchips and controllers) allowing the user to change the properties of rooms and equipment to their liking. This will lead to the emergence of active environments, i.e. working, living and studying areas controlled by intelligent systems or the user, depending on the mood or the task at hand. For example, for a yoga session, you can select a more neutral color for the walls; for child’s play, make the walls softer and soften out the corners; for a party, you can cool down the room and turn on embedded bright backlights. Smart rooms can adapt to various weather conditions by adjusting temperature and light intensity.
Another most significant invention is 3D printing, i.e. the use of special compounds to reproduce any object, whether a computer circuit board, musical instrument, weapon, or prosthesis. The technology can be applied, among others, in the transport industry. For example, at the International Manufacturing Technology Show in Chicago in September 2014, the U.S.-based Local Motors invited visitors to see the creation of Strati, the first, functioning car ever produced with a 3D printer. The process took 44 hours to complete. Although the electric engine, seats, wheels, tires and the windshield had to be manufactured by traditional methods, 3D printing drastically reduced the number of parts and time of assembly. According to the company’s CEO John Rogers, very soon, two people will be able to assemble a complete car in less than an hour.
New discoveries in this field are leading to improvements in the properties and durability of materials, mechanisms, and structures. The emergence and development of 3D printing has marked a new era in manufacturing, as end products can now be actually home-made, rather than manufactured by special factories, which means that every consumer can become a producer. Home printers grow cheaper every day. The most affordable ones are already priced at $500, with enthusiasts uploading more and more drawings to print all kinds of things.

Professions

Safety engineer in the nano industry

The profession appears after 2020

Specialist in charge of the safety of workers in the industry, end product users, and the environment.Develops programmes enabling a quick reaction to the negative impact of production and application of nanoproducts.

Professional skills and abilities

Smart material designer

The profession appears after 2020

Professional responsible for designing composite materials within smart environments, which change their properties according to given tasks in a home, office, or industrial facility.

Professional skills and abilities

Glass engineer

The profession appears before 2020

This specialist develops glass products using glass-based composite materials.

Professional skills and abilities

Recycling technologist

The profession appears before 2020

Specialist engaged in developing and implementing recycling technologies, creating new materials from industrial waste, and developing waste-free production processes. Russia is only beginning to master the technologies of lean and sustainable production actively used in the West. For example, young designer Victor Monserrate invented the recycling bicycle, a machine that turns plastic waste into a thread that can be used to produce furniture. New Zealander Daniel McLaughlin found out that rug producers wasted about 7% of wool, and launched a “biowool” production line using wool waste and biorubber as raw materials.

Professional skills and abilities

Nanomaterial designer

The profession appears before 2020

Professional engaged in modelling the properties and forecasting the life cycle of nanomaterials with the use of digital models. This designer is a highly qualified programmer with a good knowledge of nanophysics and nanochemistry.

Professional skills and abilities

System engineer of composite materials

The profession appears before 2020

Specialist who replaces traditional materials with composites in construction, mechanical engineering, robotics, medicine, etc.This professional will design advanced materials depending on the requirements of consumer industries regarding frost resistance, fragility, durability, hypoallergenic properties, etc.

Professional skills and abilities

Where can i receive basic training
in the specialty?

Ural Federal University named after the first President of Russia B.N.Yeltsin
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), MIPT
the National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University
St.Petersburg Polytechnic University
National University of Science and Technology "MISIS"
D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia
Lomonosov Moscow State University of Fine Chemical Technologies
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod
National Research Novosibirsk State University (NSU)

Employers in the Russian Federation

Ruscompozit
RT-Chemical Technologies and Composite Materials
Composite Holding Company
NT-MDT
RUSNANO project companies